Rethinking the art of politics

Stuart Holland: Why Did They Get Ricardo So Wrong? Globalisation and the Myth of Comparative Advantage
Throughout the postwar period economists have tended to assume that the Ricardian comparative advantage was prefected by the so-called Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson theorem and would maximise global welfare. Yet Ricardo’s paradigm depended on no capital mobility whereas Ohlin stressed that differences between capital and labour mobility could yield asymmetric gains from trade. This paper examines this in relation to evidence that it is foreign direct investment that has driven postwar trade; how it can substitute for exports from and increase imports to countries of FDI outflow, and the manner in which this confirms Smith on absolute advantage rather than Ricardo comparative advantage. It also evidences how Keynesian reliance on exchange rate changes has been compromised by FDI; the implications of this for the Bretton Wods institutions, and the manner in which a recycling of the resultant surpluses for some countries is vital for fulfilment of the ambition of the G20 for more balanced global trade and welfare.

Bedrudin Brljavac: The EU Integration Theories: State-Centric versus Multi-Level Model from the Perspective of Usefulness
In the first part of this work the author gave you a background picture about several reasons accounted for increasing democratic deficit. One of those reasons has been increasingly powerful EP but still facing low elections turnout. Also, very important reason standing behind the problem of democracy in the EU has been non transparent functioning of the Commission. In the next part the author just tried to provide some arguments in support of democratic credential in the EU which doesn’t mean that EU democracy is ideal one. Still, it has established several important and influential organs such as the European Parliament, the European Commission and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on which more stable future democracy in the EU can be built. Also, the EU has been providing potential member states with very important promises in terms of democratic merits of the Union.

Vlagyimir Rukavishnyikov: Russia’ Policy after Putin’s Return to Kremlin in 2012
The paper is divided into three sections which are linked to each other. The brief concluding remarks recaps what was said in the paper with a focus on relationships between the USA and the EU, on one side, and the Russian Federation, on other. The paper deals with projections of Russia’s policy after Mr. Putin’s return to Kremlin in 2012. The focus is made on security and foreign policy issues. They are considered as twinned with the domestic affairs. In fact the paper examines how the proposed rising of military spending impacts the Russian society, the state politics as a whole, as well as other relevant issues. The paper insists that the increase/decrease of temperature of the US – Russia and Russia-the EU relationships is hardly only Russia’s concern. The Russian democracy reflects the Russian political culture, and the author is definitely sure that his main conclusions made earlier are correct till nowadays.

György Schöpflin: The Black Swans and the Truthiness – The Residuals and the Challenges for the Future New Democracies
The starting proposition of author is that all political systems leave a residue. The residue of the past does not disappear however radical the change may be. If you think about it, there have been a number of revolutions in the world and the elements of the previous system live on. In a sense, these elements of the previous system in themselves constitute of an interesting phenomenon; interesting in terms of political theory, in terms of cultural practices, economic activity and so on. On the other hand what is talking about is really that we have democracy in Central Europe, at least in this part of the world. They can be transformed this way and that way – why, because the party at the end of the day insisted that it had a monopoly not only of power but of rationality. This was diluted to some degree as the years went on, but he doesn’t think that the party has fully abandoned this. The author thinks came into being was a kind of false modernity, false by the criteria of Western democracies, but a kind of communist modernity which transformed citizens in a particular type of citizenship in which they were passive recipients.

Janka Teodóra Nagy: The Legal Ethnography in Reflection of the Hungarian Research
The author evaluates the researches of the Hungarian legal ethnography. She consider both the published and non-published sources, which after being deprived of contingency of causalities, clearly depict aims and efforts which characteristically differentiate the history of the Hungarian research from the general international characteristics of the scientific field. The legal anthropological approach which puts emphasis on the present research examines behaviourial attitudes and the regulations which are in the background from ethnical and religion aspect. Today for the legal ethnography the fundamental issue is what kind of answers arise to the social challenges in Hungary if at all.

József N. Szabó: The Role of the Collegium Hungaricum in the Hungarian Cultural Diplomacy /1945-1948/
Hungarian cultural diplomacy always attributed great significance to the Collegium Hungaricum and the Hungarian Institutes. Cultural institutes (university and college departments, libraries) maintained abroad had a primarily cultural and scientific mission. They represented the culture and science of the mother country, and served as a link between the sending and receiving countries. They often fulfilled an inter-or multicultural mission. The Hungarian Institutes, university and college departments abroad fulfilled a cultural mission of utmost importance after the war, often under very difficult circumstances. Their work was indispensable not only for the Hungarian cultural leadership but also for Hungarian foreign policy in general.