Antal Örkény – Mária Székelyi: Origin, Identity Conservation, Assimilation – Identity of people living in the border zones of Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine
Around the borders between countries we often encounter a variety of ethnic groups. The border region of Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine is a perfect example how different ethnic groups are living together and how they are building their ethnic and national identity; how ethnic identity is modified if individuals were raised in an ethnically homogeneous or mixed family; what extend family ethno-history or free personal decision determines the construction of personal identity; and finally how dominant identity can match with competing identities. The paper is based on an empirical sociological survey carried out in the above mentioned border region of Central Europe. In this research first we investigate how participants determine their ethnic identity. We also gave them the option of choosing dual identity in our questionnaire. Childhood socialisation has major impact on chosen identity, so in the second part of our research we are investigating how the family’s ethnic composition influences the choice of identity. The following part is dedicated to transmitting identity. First we analyse the differences we have found in chosen identity between Hungarians living in Slovakia and Ukraine. Finally we are trying to find out if the participants will transmit their chosen identity to their children.

Fricz Tamás: Government systems in Central and Eastern Europe – Comparative analyses
The following study is seeking answers about the type of governmental systems that evolved in the new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe, according to the experience of the last twenty years, and how much did these systems help the consolidation of the democratic institutions and procedures. Beyond the description and comparison of the concerned countries’ governmental systems, we will also examine what background factors motivated the different countries and sub-regions’ states to select the presidential, semi presidential and parliamentary systems, or their determined combinations. While the analyses of the government systems traditionally require the institutional approach, this analysis is broader than that. On one hand we apply the “actor-aspect” approach, which intends to find out the motivations of the political actors when they introduced one or another governmental system during the democratization process, after the end of communism. On the other hand, with the neo-institutional analyses method we can see that behind the actors’ institution-choices, what historical, cultural, political and institutional traditions can be traced, which can explain the survival of certain historical continuity patterns, even after the fall of communism.

Csaba Varga: »Slouching towards Gomorrah« – Communist Degeneration of Legal Theorising in Hungary
From amongst legal theories of Socialisms’ Marxism, Hungarian scholarship played a rather balancing role all along. Characterised by dialogue and successful mediation, it strove to take a middle-ofthe- road stance within the all-Soviet orbit. It took the professional requirements of scholarship rather seriously within the bounds of feasibility at varying times. Under restrictive conditions and despite ideological dictates, it filled a fermentative role. All in all, it made both (1) the sociological approach and (2) the historico-comparative perspective accepted in the Socialist world by transcending legal positivism and especially “Socialist normativism”, on the one hand, and by breaking out from domestic/regional self-seclusion, on the other. Moreover, it (3) introduced an ontological perspective, built upon the epistemological perspective, exclusive till then, and thereby it could attribute ontic significance to the self-explanation and self-representation of different legal cultures, usually treated as having merely an ideological importance; and (4) by developing a framework of law and modernisation theory, it could address Central and Eastern Europe in a responsive way. On the final analysis, within an overview starting by assessing the legacy in the end of WWII and concluding in a parallel characterisation of the state of scholarship and its achievements throughout the countries concerned by the end of the Soviet rule, the Hungarian pattern offered a relatively near-to-optimum alternative, a kind of optimality in solutions and responses. Tibor Dessewffy-Zsófia Nagy: As it comes – Towards a moderate realism The authors examine how the realist approach – which is significant in foreign affairs and security policy – can be applied to explaining the wider sphere of social relations. After outlining the nodes of the key debate partner to realist interpretation frameworks, namely modernization discourse and within it economic development, political institutions and cultural value change, the authors move on to examine the cornerstones of realism. These include: anthropological pessimism, theses on the ambition for power, and the question of the utilization of these in social relations. A review of two popular realist books of the past year – Why Nations Fail and The Dictator’s Handbook – serves as a way of illustrating these nodes. Finally, the authors construct a possible foundation for a moderate realist vision and explore its potential for utilization.

József N. Szabó – Zsuzsanna Konczné Nagy: Albert Szent-Györgyi Received the Nobel Prize 75 Years Ago (The Work of the Physicist-Biochemist in the Fields of Science-Policy and Cultural Diplomacy after the Second World War)
On 2nd October 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi received a phone call and a telegram from which he learnt that the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937 was awarded to him “for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid” by The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. The scientific background to the process leading to the Nobel Prize, the achieved results of research, and the research work abroad that lasted for over 10 years have already been studied. It is also a well-known fact that he was offered a position as a professor at the Department of Medical Chemistry at the University of Szeged by Kunó Klebelsberg, Minister of Culture. The years he spent in Szeged have also been described in detail. The milestones of the period were when he became a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1938, and when he was appointed rector of the University of Szeged in 1940. As rector, he expressed his views related to thefield of science policy, which he remained committed to all his life. According to these, the atmosphere of intellectual freedom was to be preserved within the walls of the university. Both his antifascist attitude and the mission which was mandated to him by the Hungarian Prime Minister Miklós Kállay were well-known in intellectual circles. For that mission, he was sent to Cairo to begin secret negotiations with the Allies. However, it has not been revealed yet what role he played in the fields of science and cultural diplomacy as the only Nobel Laureate working in Hungary at the time he received the prize.

Edit Bencze, Lőrinczné: Europeanization: Croatiancase
The paper deals with the phenomenon of Europeanization, as in the last decades there has been a growing academic interest in examining the impact of Europeanization on domestic developments of non-member states. Europeanization is described here by analysing the impact of accession on the dynamics of the Europeanization in the pre-accession phase. Borrowing from the literature on enlargement-led Europeanization and EU conditionality, the article discusses through the Croatian case how durable and distinctive the patterns of candidate Europeanization are in the post-accession stage. The first part of this essay starts with the identification of the conceptual framework of Europeanization. The second part of the paper shows how academics have applied theoretical approaches and concepts to studying the impact of Europeanization on new and acceding member states´ polities, policies and politics. The final component of the paper is a case study of Croatia, where Europeanization is seen as an external pressure or impact on national economic, political and sociological structures. The main and unique features of Croatia’s Europeanization are also shown, which is based on rejecting the communist system of government, on the adaptation of European institutions, on harmonization and convergence with European norms and accepting the European multilevel government.

Renata Suchowiejko: Austrian Military Bands in Cracow around 1900. Performances – Repertoire – Cultural Context.
The 19th century Europe as seen by the traditional musical historiography is split into two parts: the West being the artistic centre of the universe and the Central-Eastern Europe perceived as a remote periphery with all those “national schools” out there. The aforementioned historiographic model was developed in the fall of the 19th century under the influence of the national ideology, the rules of progress and development, the idea of aesthetic autonomy which implies that a musical work is perceived in itself as an independent being. The first critical remarks on such model appeared almost recently: in the last decade of the 20th century. They show that there is a deep desire to revaluate the dominating methodological principles and that a change of historical narratives is badly needed. The orientation of research towards phenomena of migration, diffusion, dissemination and cultural interactions is associated with a departure from traditional research methods. From that new perspective, the musical past appears to be an interactive game played in various spheres of private and public life with the cultural transfer transgressing artificial borders partitioning our continent into the West and Central-Eastern zones, the centre and periphery, the mainstream and the ‘off-cultures’ of national schools. The paper discusses one of these intercultural phenomena which is the presence and significance of Austrian military bands in Cracow at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. They participated in the musical life of the town very intensively. They gave their performances during military and municipal celebrations, took part in parades, banquets and promenade concerts. A number of these bands were genuine orchestras composed of the full musical ensembles and performed symphonic music, they also played during opera performances. All this made an important contribution to the development of local musical culture.