TERRITORY AND LAW IN CENTRAL EUROPE
Csaba Varga: What to Learn for Future Transformations? Lections from Central European Transition to Rule of Law
As a critical self-reflection of developments in Central and Eastern Europe in general and in Hungary in particular during the last half of a century, by calling for early pre-planning for future and presenting the post-WWII as well as the post-communist models of system change, the Hungarian case of system transformation is characterised by features such as No pattern to follow; Models in conflict and flux; Lack of balanced planning; Multi-party democracy with opposition, running risks that the needed stability will evaporate; The prevalence of lawyerly considerations; Nothing but Western self-interest asserted as guiding help from “the West”; No discontinuity with the past: as a natural consequence, the past is getting more established than ever; Divided country, where the media as the fourth acting branch of power instigate against all three of the rest; and Academia/universitas unchallenged, only to be switched off from being a vassal of Moscow onto another pole in family resemblance of the same extremity, the one which amalgamates with US-dominated global universalism; ending by Conclusion and the Policy during the system transformation process, proposed to any entity possibly facing the job again.
László Tamás Vizi: Trianon-dictate and Possible Alternatives in the 20 Century
As a result of Trianon-dictate, the forced loss of territory reduced the historical territory of Hungary – not counting Croatia-Slavonia – from 282,870 km2 to 92,963 km2 and the population of the country from persons 18,264,533 to 7,615,117. All territorial and population losses suffered was 189,907 km2 and 10,649,416 people. That is the historical territory of Hungary lost 67% and the population of 58.3%. The dictate contained besides the territorial and human losses many measures restrictive to the national sovereignty. Without being exhaustive here are just a few of these: number of the country’s armed forces limited in 35 thousands, universal conscription prohibited and weapons production restricted. To supervise these measures a military monitoring Committee was sent to Hungary. And Hungary was committed to reimburse the caused damage of the war in the form of restitution, the amount to be laid down later, and ensure the principle of most favored nation compensation for the victorious power in international trade. After the 2010 parliamentary elections, the second Orbán government was formed, and one of its first provisions was to initiate the modification of the 1993 year LV. act about the Hungarian citizenship. The members of parliament modified the law about Hungarian citizenship on the session held on 26thMay 2010 of the National Assembly, approving it by 344 yes, 3 no votes and 5 abstentions. At the same time it created the opportunity to reunite the Hungarian nation which was torn apart by the Trianon peace treaty. The fourth paragraph of the act provides about remembering Trianon as a national tragedy in the present and in the future as well. The “Testimony Along the National Cohesion” act ends a ninety-year long rugged process. It faced the tragedy of Trianon, and the decades long national crises caused by it.
Csaba Cservák: The Distribution of Power In Europe and in Central Europe (Separation of powers and checks and balances of powers)
There are two major forms of the democratical exercise of powers: the direct and the indirect democracy. The entire system of the separation of powers can be can be classified within the scope of the indirect exercise of democracy, although in a broad sense methods of the direct exercise of the democracy can make up such division of powers, which can be used as a banc against the machine of power structures, which relies too much on the binary code of the government -opposition, and distances itself too far from the people. Here I would like refer to the legal instrument of the referendums. The American theory, the ’checks and balances’ shall be equal to the concept mentioned above. The demand of mentioning the constitutional power as a separate factor can be arise after the question of creating the classic branches of power is transferred from theory to practice. In international comparison two basic constitutional models are known. In one of the models the traditional courts – headed by the Supreme Court of the State – compare the individual legal norms with the standards of the constitution, and ultimately push aside the statute in concern. So, in this scheme, quasi all courts implement constitutional judicature, but due to appeals, and legal remedies the Supreme Court of the country is the authentic and principal organ of the interpretation of the Constitution. Afterwards let us see how the classic triad of powers are formed in Hungary as there is no chance to form an overall picture from the reason of the diversity of national legislation.
Péter Krisztián Zachar: The Danube Chambers of Commerce Association – A new way of economic cooperation in the Danube Region
In the course of history several sweeping plans were drawn up for a tighter cooperation of mezzo-sphere organizations. The Danube basin gave a solid ground for these ideas. There were even plans of a long-lasting state-cooperation between the countries of this area, even for their confederation. Beside this, the first traditional international organization in Europe was formed in connection with the river Danube: the European Danube Commission. Nowadays the European Union’s Strategy for the Danube Region gives an excellent opportunity for the cooperation of chambers of commerce in the region to reach welfare and economic development. The current study gives an insight in the development of chamber organizations and their cooperation in the newly founded Danube Chambers of Commerce Association. More and more people in Europe notice that a greater involvement of non-political organizations into opinion-forming and decision-preparing processes is needed in order to preserve, or possibly, increase the credit of a democratic state system and to find ways out of the recent crisis. In this regard the work of the DCCA, which has started yet, seems important and successful in the future.
József N.Szabó and Nándor Csiky: Hungarian Medical Elit and Political Change (1945-1946)
For the majority of political forces, the scientific elite is always a crucial group of national advancement and modernisation. After the Second World War, the Hungarian scientific elite, especially the medical elite, was confronted with a serious challenge. Most scientists saw the political change and the modernisation of scientific life as a challenge. Moreover, researchers who were neglected between the two world wars felt to be also entitled to enter the scientific elite. In early 1945, scientists were respected by every political side. The communists showed a special interest in scientists. One of the big dilemmas of the 1945 change was how to judge the elite that became entangled with the pre-war regime and discredited itself in the past. In the post-war Hungary it was a weighty question how to disclose the past. Should it be the elite´s inside matter or should politicians interfere? Since this screening was motivated by the elite´s relation to the pre-war regime and fascism, the issue was not to be separated from political power.
Lyubov Shishelina: Russian Policy towards Central Europe
Within 25 years since the beginning of reforms, relations between Russia and Central European countries underwent dramatic changes: from their merely entire destruction, till the decisive break through at the threshold of the 2000’s that steadily and persistently draws the path towards a new type of relations. The most tragic years in bilateral and regional relations had been 1990’s, marked by the fall of trade relations merely till the bottom. The major trend in Russian foreign policy in the 1990’s had been the summing up and the closing up of all the mutual economic debt issues. There practically remained no place for common ground in political interests. Even cultural ties had fallen dawn to the lowest level as compared to the whole of the after war period. It seemed than, that the only interest of East-Central European countries, as well as of former USSR republics towards Russia had concentrated itself around compensation claims. Consequently, Russia in early 90’s had started the search for new trade partners, political allies and new role in the region and world geopolitics. Thus, the paths of the former allies since the beginning of the 1990’s went in different directions.
Csaba Káncz: Conflicts and Negotiations: China, Balkans and Central Europe
The author investigates China’s penetration to the Balkans as the EU plans no further enlargement in the next five years. The Chinese market penetration strategy is similar to the China-Latin America Permanent Forum. Chinese trade with Latin America has grown more than 20-fold over the last ten years, with China overtaking the European Union as Latin America’s second biggest trade partner. The Third Central and Eastern European (CEE) – China Summit participants discussed the establishment of a land-sea ’express line, including the construction of a high-speed railway between Belgrade and Budapest and the further development of the Greek port Piraeus in order to enhance regional cooperation. The Budapest-Belgrade high-speed railway is the first trans-national infrastructural project within the China-CEE framework and it significantly boosts regional cooperation.