Abstracts

INTER-REGIONAL RELATIONS

Lőrinczné, Edit Bencze: Some Lectures of the Enlargement of the European Union
The current enlargement agenda has two main drivers: safeguarding stability and security within wider Europe, and achieving economic prosperity and growth. Unfortunately the latter one is strongly affected by the current EU economic crisis which possibly marks a long-term economic and political stagnation accompanied with the Community’s decreasing international role both from the perspective of the EU member states and the candidate countries. Therefore, the EU has to solve its inner problem while maintaining the process of European enlargement. The enlargement fatigue appeared after Eastern enlargement has been partially resolved by introducing absorption/integration capacity of EU in the EU Enlargement Strategy. The EU follows four main principle in pursuing its objectives for enlargement The first is that the EU insists on the full acceptance of the acquis communautaire which must be integrated into a candidate’s national law before membership is granted. The second principle is about creating new policy instrument by the EU that tends to address diversity. According to the third one, the EU integrates new member states with institutional adjustments resulting in long and often acrimonious treaty negotiations. The EU’s fourth principle is that the Community prefers to negotiate with groups of states that already have close relations with one another.

Csaba Varga: Pattering the Self-Globalising World. The Ideal of the Law of the Future as Forged and Tested in Canada
The scale of globalisation to be witnessed in Canada—as exemplified by the treatment of the topics of (1) the transformation of the role of precedents; (2) the multicultural and multifactorial search for a common solution instead of any law-based administration of justice; (3) dissolving definition by and conclusion from (and, thereby, also any specificity of, the law in the name of a legal socio-positivist approach; accompanied with (4) some new prerogatives acquired by courts through a) unfolding statutory provisions by principles while their judicial actualisation, (b) constitutionalisation of issues, as well as c) the Supreme Court imposing itself upon its community also as the nation’s supreme moral authority—is not at all unfamiliar in the European Union either, especially not after the decision was taken a decade ago to prepare the codification of private law, common at least in its basic principles. In both cases, the main point is in fact the re-consideration of the law’s substantivity resulting in a certain outcome, wishing to be released from all nationally set (i.e., positivated) self-restriction when searching for a kind of cultural community, and, by gradually eliminating any substantivity from it, also to preserve the law’s individual identity more and more rather only in a procedural sense. Although globalisation does not necessarily result in, it does theoretically involve the possibility of that “sustainable development” will be accompanied by the preservation of some kind of “sustainable diversity”, in the form of the increasing reciprocal action of all great legal cultures and traditions of the human kind having evolved until now, and their mutual utilisation as shared sources for inspiration as well.

Péter Krisztián Zachar: The Danube Chambers of Commerce Association. A new way of economic cooperation in the Danube Region
Within the European Union, the Danube Region gives home for more than 115 million citizens, and at the same time is one of the most important economic areas of the EU. This area has always had a leading role in the creation and transformation of new political ideas. Because of changes in the acceptance of the political decisions nowadays a greater involvement of non-political organisations into opinion-forming and decision-preparing processes is needed in order to preserve, or possibly, increase the credit of a democratic state system. in the midst of today’s economic challenges one of the most important key issues are through networking, which has prominent opportunities among the chambers. This is particularly true for the joint forces collaboration of the cross-bordering and the border areas. Therefore, it is essential for each territorial chamber to recognize their common interests and missions and with it help for expanding the opportunities of the small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Danube-area.

Vladimir Rukavishnikov: Is Putin’s Russia winning the war in Ukraine? The Second Letter and Comment to the Russia-Ukraine Confrontation
The potential for confrontation is growing in the world, old contradictions are growing ever more acute and new ones are being provoked. Nations come across such developments, often unexpectedly, and we observe with regret that international law is not working, the most basic norms of decency are not complied with and the principle of all-permissiveness is gaining the upper hand. That is exactly what we see in today’s Ukraine. The Russians have long been warning about this, and, unfortunately, predictions came true.

János Sallai: The History and Birth of the Hungarian Law Enforcement
The Police Science is recognized as a discipline, but also found it necessary to develop a decision of the content and form, which was later confirmed by the decision of nr. 2012/10/V/2. The resulting new science scholars, however, requires that the scientific and technical challenges to meet the requirements, the Law Enforcement and explore the past, present and seriously sought its potential in the future. They are all motivated to seek out and review the history of the Hungarian Police Science, which has its roots in the late nineteenth century War. I find that interesting that research debates on the policing have been completed mainly administrative law scholars and professionals and only occasionally has come across the topic of policing to the practicing and cultivating police members with some awareness-raising writings.

József N. Szabó – Zoltán Császár: International library relations of Hungary following World War II (1945 – 1946)
It became highly important from the perspective of the Hungarian culture and science after 1945 to re-establish international library relations, which had been cut off by the war, and to create previously non-existent cooperation. The library relations after the war were more than a librarian’s problem. Acquisition of books and journals became a central task for the Hungarian cultural diplomacy and cultural politics. It became an issue, which was not only supported by professionals and the scientific community but also by political parties. The unprecedented preference of library relations is primarily related to the fact that Hungary was lacking scientific and literary works of the previous few years, as well as journals published during these years, due to the isolation caused by the war. Moreover, the system of international relations had to be re-established once again. The issue received a science-political dimension as well, due to the reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and to the reform of the Hungarian scientific community. Due to the change initiated in the scientific community, an unprecedented demand emerged for up to date, primarily natural scientific literature.