POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW
Volume 18. Number 68-69. Summer-Fall 2017
1956 of Hungary: Revolution, Democratization and Freedom Fight Retaliation and Escape, Emigration and Exclusion (International help to the Freedom Fighters of 1956)
SPECIAL ISSUES IN TWO VOLUMENS
First Volume (Content – Number 68)
Gyula Illyés: A Sentence on Tyranny (1950)
Chronology of Insurrection of 1956 hungary – by Alessandro Marengo
THE COMMUNIST COUNTRIES
György Juhász: Tito’s Yugoslavia and the Hungarian ’56
Edit Lőrinczné Bencze: The Yugoslav – Hungarian Relations in 1956
Artúr Lakatos: The Hungarian ’56 and his Consequences in Romania
Csaba Kiss G.: The Monument os the Hungarian ’56 in Central Europe
János Tischler: Warsaw-Budapest, 1956 – The Relations between the Hungarian Revolution and the Polish October
Attila Simon: The Revolution of 1956 and Slovakia. The response of authority and citizens for the events in Hungary
Jozef Leikert: Slovakian Writers and their Reactions to the Hungarian Revolution of ’56
László Domonkos: Soviet Soldiers Who Switched Sides during the Hungarian Revolution
MEMOIRS OF THE WITNESS
Csaba Kennessey: Reminisence of a Witness os the Hungarian Revolution of 1956
György Szapáry: 1956 gave me a Chance
György Ritecz – János Sallai: The Causes and Trends of Migration and the Possibilities to Handle it 2.0 – by Mátyás Szabolcs
Sándor Márai: Angels from Heaven
Avanti Ragazzi di Buda – March of Lazio Football Club
ANNEX – by Borbála Kossuth
CEPoliti Review Summer 2017, Vol. 18. No.67-68. Quarterly of CEPSA
Editor-in-chief: János Simon
General Assistant of Editor: Dr. Borbála Kossuth
International Assistant of Editor: Alessandro Marengo
The Central European Political Science Review Volume 18. Number 68-69 are special issues from every aspect with the title: 1956 of Hungary: Revolution, Democratization and Freedom Fight. (Retaliation and Escape, Emigration and Exclusion – International help to the Freedom Fighters’ of 1956).
With the studies of these issues we intend to commemorate the Hungarian people’ uprising, revolution and freedom fight of 1956, as well as its background, its suppression and the European reception of Hungarian refugees. Through the collected scientific studies and recollections we can obtain an idea what it meant in the middle of the 20th century tyranny, the opposition against it, the retorsion, the escape from it and the international solidary.
After 1956 many people summarized the events as that the strong Goliath defeated the weal David? Although the communist Goliath won with its force, but the moral victory – in historical terms – was achieved by the freedom loving, brave Hungarians. The various countries reacted quite differently to the events. The Volume 18. Number 68-69 of Central European Political Science Review (CEPSR) desires to commemorate the events with this double issue, as well as giving an example to each nation, which is fighting against dictatorship in order to achieve democracy and liberty.
We know that in 1956 every Eastern European country supported the suppression of the Hungarian revolution and freedom fight, as well as the Russian occupation. The Romanians and Czechoslovakians were absolutely supporting the Russian invasion, the Polish demonstrated a more moderate approach, while the Yugoslavs were looking for a solution which fitted their interests. Obviously we couldn’t expect from the contemporary Eastern European communist puppet governments to support the rebellious Hungarians, however they didn’t relate equally to the Hungarian revolution.
On the other hand, what was the situation with the free nations of the world? In the late 1950’s, except for the Austrians, the Germans and the Spanish, the political elite of Western-Europe betrayed Hungary while they fought their democratic revolution and national freedom fight in 1956. The words and the acts became distant from each other. Although in their words many were indignant, but behind the political backstage they acted differently. Especially the American, British and French politicians refused to actually help the Hungarians. While in their Hungarian language broadcasts the Voice of America and Radio Free Europe encouraged the Hungarian armed resistance to fight and endure, in reality they blocked every military assistance towards Hungary.
The great powers (USA, Russia, UK and France) sacrificed the freedom of Hungary in order to achieve a more favorable outcome for themselves in the Suez crisis. Spain was the only Western-European government that intended to send weapons to Hungary and strongly fought for the Hungarian case being discussed in the United Nations General Assembly. Austria, which got rid of the Russian occupation just a few years earlier, bravely requested the removal of Russian troops from Hungary as well. The situation was different within the civil society, as well as the average people and the prominent intellectual and artistic environment, where a strong solidarity was demonstrated for the Hungarian cause. Several forms of support appeared, from the great assemblies and aid supplies during the revolution, and the support and reception of escaping revolutionaries after the Russian invasion.
Jean Cocteau (1882-1963), world renowned French poet and director, after the tragedy of 1956, he addressed the Hungarians in his 1957 book entitled “Hommage dés počtes français aux počtes hongrois“: “Dear Hungarians! You stars among the planets, just as all of you are poets because of the tragic act’s lyre.” Similarly did appreciate the Hungarian revolution of 1956 the Nobel Prize winning author, Albert Camus (1913-1960). In his speech he gave on the first anniversary of the outbreak of the revolution, 23rd October 1957, he glorified the legacy of the Hungarians who were left alone: “The Hungarian blood is of such value to Europe and to liberty that we must protect each drop of it… the crushed, bonded Hungary did more for freedom and truth, than any other nation did in the last twenty years. So that this historic lesson to be learned by the deaf and blind Western society, much of Hungarian blood had to be spilled – and this bloodshed is coagulating in the memory.” “The Hungarian workers and intellectuals, beside whom we stand with so much helpless sorrow, know all of this, they are the ones who made us understand the deeper meaning of everything, and this is why if we share their misfortune, we share their hope as well. Despite their misery, their chains and their castaway existence, they left us a royal heritage which we must earn: this is LIBERTY, which they didn’t obtain, but gave it back to us in a single day!”
In the two special editions of No. 68-69 of CEPSR about 1956 of Hungary: Revolution, Democratization and Freedom Fight – (Retaliation and Escape, Emigration and Inclusion – International help to the Freedom Fighters of 1956). We publish the best of studies and reminiscence coming from eight countries. Some of the authors deal directly with the Hungarian freedom fight, while others analyze from the Polish, Czech, Slovak, Russian, Romanian, Yugoslav, Italian, Spanish and American point of view, regarding how did the people and relevant intellectuals experience the revolution in the neighboring countries, and on what grounds did the politicians make their decisions in the respective countries.
The special edition contains the newest results of researches, explains a whole set of new issues for those who deal with geopolitics, history, international politics, while it positions in a questionable dimensions the dictatorships, the democracies, the transition to democracy, the freedom fight and the successful regime changes. It positions into a different aspect the issue of national sovereignty, as well as the realist political approach and super powers’ games.
One of the main goals of the journal editorial board is to make it available to the broadest circle of readers from among experts and persons with a serious interest in the issues of the unique space of Central Europe, from the different perspective of international relations, history, political science, sociology, anthropology and art-sociology, respectively. The main reason for publishing the Central European Political Science Review is to serve and to enhance Central Europe, to broaden and to spread the thoughts of Central Europeanism, and Europeanism.
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We dedicate our special issue of Central European Political Science Review to the memory of tragically hell died Professor György Juhász (1954-2017), who was author of this issue, and who kept building bridges between the nations of our region with his life and work as an educator and researcher. He did everything in his power to make the Croatian, Hungarian, Serbian, Slovenian nations understand each other better.
1956 of Hungary:
Revolution, Democratization and Freedom Fight
SPECIAL ISSUES OF CEPSR about
RETORSION AND ESCAPE, EMIGRATION AND EXCLUSION
International help to the Freedom Fighters’ of 1956
in two volumes
This issues was published with the help of the support of “Memoir-Committee of 1956”. (In the Imre Sinkovits sub-program).
The project number is „KKETTKK-56P-04″.