First volume

György Juhász: Tito’s Yugoslavia and the Hungarian ’56

The main goal of this study is to review the Yugoslav-Russian and Hungarian relations from the period the revolution until the Russian invasion and until the repression. We examine the roll of the Dictator-Marshall Tito during the Hungarian Freedom Fight, the counter-insurgency and in the repression. Tito has very important role to form the fate of the Hungarian Prime Minister Imre Nagy, who was kidnapped, deported and finally in 1958 hanging on the tree. The former Yugoslavia did play a decisive role during these historical events.

Edit Lőrinczné Bencze: The Yugoslav – Hungarian Relations in 1956

As Tito couldn’t accept the old Stalinist leadership represented by Rákosi and Gerő, Yugoslavia at the beginning welcomed the new Hungarian government led by Imre Nagy, who opposed this old leadership. In Hungary might leave the values of socialism, and there could be a general attack against Stalinist system. Soviet Union thought the same, so the Soviet and Yugoslav attitude started to converge towards each other. After the Soviet military intervention the Yugoslavs found themselves in an irrevocably paradoxical situation.

Artúr Lakatos: The Hungarian ‘56 and his Consequences in Romania

This paper is dealing with the issue of the echoes of the Hungarian Revolution from 1956 in Romania, with a special focus on events from Transylvania. By presenting a series of documented case studies – including the major student revolts, the show trials of the Szoboszlay and Sass Kálmán groups, and a series of others – we try to analyze the seriousness, the impact and the aftermath of these events, which attracted the repressions of Romanian Communist authorities.

Csaba Kiss G.: The Monument of the Hungarian ’56 in Central Europe

Central Europe had a specific mental historical heritage in which there were the uncertainty of national identity and the lack of state independence. My main question is: how did the image of „the Hungarian ’56” develop? The first group of texts are the “testimonies”, written by authors who may have witnessed the incidences personally. The second are those poems, which are directly reflective the Hungarian ‘56, written in the autumn of 1956. Next group includes writings, from exile. These texts express regional solidarity in a sense, show the common fate.

János Tischler: Warsaw-Budapest, 1956 – The Relations between the Hungarian Revolution and the Polish October

The Political Bureau of the Polish United Workers’ Party decided on its congress on the 28th of October to appeal the Hungarian nation. This was of great importance, considering that the days after the uprising on the 23rd of October, the Polish leadership was silent, as they were not quite sure what to believe, in the waves of often contradictory news about what was happening in Budapest. Gomułka’s words were not only empty phrases was proved by the events in those days, when the Polish party leadership did try to help Hungary “any way they could”.

Attila Simon: The Revolution of 1956 and Slovakia. The response of authority and citizens for the events in Hungary

The illegal border crossing personnel from Hungary to Slovakia can be divided in 4 groups. 1. The county level leaders of Hungarian Communist Party (MDP) and (State Security Agency (ÁVH); 2.The second group was made by the refugees, often whole families; They came to stay with their relatives in Southern Slovakia; 3.The third group includes those who picked up the armed fight after the 4th of November; 4.The fourth group was a high number of the population, living in the Hungarian villages along the border, went to do their shopping (food, medicine).

Jozef Leikert: Slovakian Writers and their Reactions to the Hungarian Revolution of ‘56

We mentioned that the Slovakian and Czech writers were not supportive of the Hungarian events and the intellectuals of the other countries didn’t do any better. Those members of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Writers’ Alliance, who were simultaneously members of the KSC party, organized a session in the Slovak Writers’ House in Budmerice between 25th and 26th October 1956, while the Hungarian revolution was still on-going. They didn’t wait for long, as they hastily passed the so-called motion of “expropriation”.

László Domonkos: Soviet Soldiers Who Switched Sides during the Hungarian Revolution

Among the Hungarian fighters: in Máthé’s unit that included 150 people, which fought near Ménesi Road with the Soviet troops coming from the direction of Kelenföld, when the truce struck on the 28th of Oct. “when the fights stop people “have the time” to count the non-Hungarian fighters”, as this youngster said, there were “4 Uzbeks, 17 Kirgiz, 4 Kazakhs, 5 Maris (Cheremis), 1 Komi (Zyryan), 13 Ukrainians, 4 Russians, 1 Mongolian, 2 Chuvash and 2 Belorussians.” All in all 64 people. Approx. third of the uprising group, almost 40%.

Csaba Kenessey: Reminiscence of a Witness of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956

In 1955 my parents abolished the forced labor system that was compulsory for those who were labeled as “enemies of the people”. Calculating with my family background, my act would profoundly affect my entire life. The day after 23 of Oct. the fighting was still going on, there were many injured people on the streets, and so with a friend of mine who happened to be a doctor, we collected the injured people and took them to the hospital… Just as I turned, a Russian bullet hit the wall above my right shoulder.., this bullet was dedicated to me.

György Szapáry: 1956 gave me a Chance

I was born into an aristocratic family whose origins can be traced back several centuries. During the ‘50-s despite the stigma attached to being an “enemy of class”, ordinary people were nice to me everywhere, except some hard-core communists. After the arrest of my parents, it was sister of my father, who took care of placing the children. On the 27th of October, the whole school take part in the ceremony of the formation of the Revolutionary Village Council. I took a small piece from the pile of stones and wrapped it with a ribbon with our national colours.

Second volume

Tamás Fricz: 1956 Lives – Thoughts on the actuality of 1956

The globalism and the deep abyss between worldview/ world perception of national existence infinitely affects our century. This is a cleavage not only because it is present in the field politics and ideas, but apparently it divides societies as well. However, the advocates of globalization have enormous resources at their disposal, which against the nation states one by one are unable to defend their sovereignty. Therefore, they need to create a variety of alliances, between equal nations while preserving their own autonomy, thus becoming a “global” force on their own.

Csaba Varga: The Revolution of 1956 in the Judgement of Ethics and Law – Or the Responding Ability of Law as a Post-totalitarian Dilemma

By referring to the constitutional clause of Hungary being “an independent, democratic state under the rule of law”, post-communist Rule of Law protection was extended to the criminal deed ordered and rewarded by the dictatorial past as not prosecutable any longer, equating thereby the lawless period’s physical time to the period of statutory limitations’ time of consolidate conditions. The ensuing corrupting effect, moral dilemmas are treated in the paper.

Péter Krisztián Zachar: Adolescence of Austria: 1956

The events of 1956 in Hungary were seriously challenging for Austria both politically, socially and economically. Austria regained its full independence and sovereignty only one year earlier. In the days of the revolution the Austrian press has continuously reported on the events, which led to serious support not only from the government, but also from a number of civil initiatives for Hungary. Despite its neutrality, Austria preferred the open representation of Western European freedom-rights and became the engine of the humanitarian assistance.

Dolores Ferrero Blanco: Faces of Solidarity – The Spanish and the Americans attitudes toward the Hungarian Revolution Spain and the Hungarian Refugees of 1956

The study would like to highlight the attitudes of Spanish people’s towards the revolution; at the time of the political leadership of the francoist Spain, and the behaviors of the super-powers of the world. On the 29th of October the Americans assured the Soviet government that: “the American government does not consider any countries of the Soviet bloc a possible military ally and it does not fall within their cognizance what the Russians do in Hungary”. The USA telegraph was the one that motivated the Russians to the intervention on the 4th of Nov. 1956.

Kata Sára Gyuricza and Péter Gyuricza: The Revolution which Changed the Fate

Between 1956 and 1960, inside the refugee camps they registered 178.780 Hungarian refugees. It is a frequently accusation concerning the revolution of 1956 that the West, especially the United States, abandoned Hungary. While the Western propaganda constantly encouraged the Hungarian revolutionaries, the Western states were either occupied with the Suez crises or they remained in neutral silence. Spain, as we saw it, couldn’t help with the refugee issue. However, the only documented military assistance attempt was connected to Franco’s name.

Andrea Carteny: Echoes and Testimonies of the Hungarian Revolution in Italy

The Fifties was the decade in which the Italian worker figure emerged in the public discourse. Started by the Hungarian revolution of the Fall ’56, the Einaudi publ. house faced a difficult time in “an atmosphere marked by disorientations and depressions”. The “White Books” series would remain a real innovative tool for the Einaudi editorial policy, albeit not enough to rebalance the financial problems and to compete with the most agile competitors, such as Feltrinelli publisher. The ’56 -’57 meant a break in which both past and modern cultures would be overcome.

Tibor Szabó: New and Old Refugees – The Hungarian 1956 and its Italian interpretations

The main problem was first of all the real dynamics of the events: uprising, war of independence, liberty fighting and use of different means to arrive them. In Italy, there were various standpoints (Communist party had condemned the change of regime), but Hungarian refugees were hosted with any problems. In some Italian cities they created refugees camps to high educated refugees: some of them began high-level intellectual in the host country. Some Italian papers try to compare in incorrect way Hungarian refugees and actual Muslim migrants.