European standard of the rights

Marcus Marktanner: What does General System Theory say about Economic Transition?
Open-system-thinking of General System Theory (GST) is an influential meta-theory for political economy. The Austrian School first identified this, therefore becoming a major intellectual alternative to the closed-system-world of neoclassical economics. Theories of economic transition, however, make barely use of GST. This deficit is the point of departure of this paper. Reviewing major parallels between GST, political economy, and its relevance to transitional economics, I conclude that GST is still a highly relevant concept, which is able to identify political priorities that conventional concepts overlook.

Judith Tóth: Kin-minority, Kin-state and Neighborhood Policy in The Enlarged Europe
As numerous experts have described, the enlarged European Union has to face a significant number of minorities living in the new Member States and their adjacent countries. The legal and political reactions of the EU and candidates/Member States would be a proposal on the flexible Schengen regime (through various visa and border control systems) or/and unilateral legal novelties based on ethnical preferences in public law. All of them are more probable in practice than a minority protection regime establishing at the EU level.

Viera Koganová: European Standard of the National Minorities Rights and Situation of the Roma Minority in Slovakia
The Roma issue is currently one of the most urgent priorities of the sociopolitical debate not only in Slovak Republic, but also in Europe as a whole. Roma constitute the second largest national minority in Slovakia and belong to the group of population that is to the largest extent endangered by the exclusion from the social life and their representation among the most impoverished and materially deprived strata of population is oversize. The paper deals with the current situation of Roma minority in Slovakia, discusses the most problematic questions associated with the legislative means of solution of the Rome issue, as well as describes the major controversies in the elaboration of the European standard of the minorities’ rights.

Uros Pinteric: (Con)federalism in the European Union Constitutional System
Author in the article tries to analyze different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovsek. Author is playing with ideal of (con)federal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. He is also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after “votes of non-confidence” to the European Constitution in France, despite It should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

Marek Louzek: Voting Power in the Enlarged European Union
Political power of EU members can be analyzed in many ways. One possibility is a qualitative analysis based on historical, socio-economic, or institutional approach. Our article, inspired by public choice theory, want to show that the political power can be also examined by quantitative methods. A model we develop here finds out and quantifies the voting power individual EU countries have before and after EU enlargement. The structure of the paper is as follows: The first section brings an introduction into the problem. The second section forms a model, defining voting power indicators exactly. The third section describes the data. The fourth section analyses empirical results – voting power indices before and after EU enlargement, according to different situations. The fifth section brings conclusions. The article is concerned with voting power indicators in the European Union. The firs section introduces into the topic. The second one forms a model, defining voting power indicators exactly. The third section specifies data – voting structure in the EU according the Nice Treaty. The forth section examines empirical results: simple relative power, the share in majority coalitions, Banhzhaf index and Coleman index, computed for the European union. The fifth section brings a conclusion.

Tomaz Dezelan and Maja Sever: Deputy Group Cohesion in Parliamentary Roll-call Voting in Slovenia: A Look a t Slovenia’s National Assembly
The paper presents an initial attempt to analyze party group cohesion in the Slovenian National Assembly based on an analysis of roll-call voting using the Rice cohesion index for a period of approximately one year commencing with the inauguration of the third parliamentary term. The study analyses the type of voting behavior, which predominantly reflects the government-opposition conflict and occasionally the left-right axis. The pattern of opposition in th Slovenian parliament is also addressed end reveals a co-operative and competitive pattern of parliamentary opposition. The main features of parliamentary activities are the high levels of cohesion of all deputy groups, mainly government and undersized party groups. In addition, agreement levels are high for the government and, surprisingly, also for the chamber as a group. Finally, the research results are revisited in an international context, which provides glimpses of path forward involving further investigations haring a common methodological basis.

Levente Nagy: Nationalism and Nation
The aim of this paper is to give an interpretation of nationalism, with special emphasis on defining the terms: nation, nationality and ethnic group. It analyses the relationship between ethnic minorities and the majority within the state, pointing at problems stemmed from subjective factors, such as: aversion, remembrance, ethnocentrism, and from the main objective factor: language. After pointing at he types of nationalism without the state, the paper analyses nationalism with respect to political status held by the different ethnic groups within the state, and it shows some of the problems caused ethnic groups within the state, and it shows some of the problems caused by nationalism such as: misinterpreting the past, inventing new culture and tradition, generating
undemocratic decision. The paper concludes with some possible solutions to the problems caused by this “spiritual ideology” of the nation.

József N. Szabó: Hungarian-Swedish Cultural and Scientific Relations(1945-1948)
After the war, this Scandinavian state with great prestige played an important role in Hungarian cultural diplomacy. Swedish professional life, especially science, showed interest in Hungarian research. In 1947 another 15 Hungarian scientists were invited to the Svenska Institute, where they were able to contact excellent representatives of Swedish scientific life. The Hungarian Institute of the University of Stockholm, directed by the linguist János Lotz, played a crucial part in developing the positions of Hungarian science and culture in Sweden. Connections between the two countries in art life were firmly established by the autumn of 1946. As the cold war raged on, and the world split into two halves, the “people’s democracies” demonstrated their union and reduced their western connections to the minimum. Sweden, as part of the western democracies, received similar treatment. Connections only improved again in the second half of the 1960s.