European identity and immigration

Joanna Kaczanowska: Abstract: European Citizenship v. European Identity
The Citizenship of the Union is considered to be a fundamental actor in creation a genuine European identity and a closer union based on non-economical value among the peoples of Europe. The paper briefly discuss the notions of European Citizenship and European identity in the light of the European integration’s process in order to evaluate whether the Citizenship of the Union achieved its goals by developing common European identity.

Árpád Gordos: EU Enlargement as instruments for promoting stability
The article revokes the contradiction of basic strategic goals, those of homogeneity of values versus geographic dimension. The author concludes that the soft nature of CFSP requires attractiveness; the development of a worldwide CFSP goes through a tighter attachment of Turkey, but further enlargement is a hampered legally and by the need for proper functioning of the union; the evolution of “the closer to the citizen” policy, the direct representative democracy are additional factors to the doubts about the absorption capacity. These concerns are reflected in the presented new EU laws on articulating the criteria on accession aiming at solving the national minorities problems causing the primary risk of importing instability by further enlargements. The author views that in case of Turkey the accession talk with openness and the options of the outcome is logical. Thus the enlargement policy is to be integrated in a new model of the EU, where the inner multi-speed configuration is accompanied by the outer multi-circles structures without institutional integration ties.

Judit Tóth: Policy versus Rule of Law
The author analyzed the Hague Programme (2004) how it serves the implementation of Freedom, Security and Justice as a standardized area under the Tiltle IV of the EC Treaty. Although the Hague Programme is considered as a second phase of establishment of this area, in constitutional meaning it means one step ahead and two steps back. It would represent the obvious interest of securitization of the EU instead of stabilization of common values on freedom and justice. It is sharp change in comparison with the Tampere Programme (1999) in which the first phase of this building process was outlined on the base of equality, solidarity and freedom of EU citizens, lawful migrants. Thus it is bad message for newborn constitutional rule-of-law (Member and candidate) states.

Balázs Vízi: The EU and the situation of Roma in Hungary in the accession process
Issues of the Roma minority were highlighted in the accession process largely because the EU decision-makers had strong fears regarding the migration potential of Roma communities from the new Central and Eastern European member states. Although, alone these fears could hardly be justified, the widespread discrimination against Roma, their marginal social and poor living conditions also raised serious problems. The fact that Roma minorities are not seen by majority political elites as posing particular political threats similarly helped EU bodies in getting actively involved in Roma issues during the accession process. Despite political and social implications of the enlargement criteria on accession states, the Hungarian case proves how the formal changes in law setting up a separate antidiscrimination rule and a weak monitoring procedure would play a deep, long-term effect neither in new member states, nor in the EU in the equality, integration and interest protection of Roma.

András Kováts: The Marking of Migration Policy in Contemporary Hungary
The article gives an overview of the development of Hungarian migration policy since the late 1980s. The underlying argument of the author is that the development of the normative (legal) and structural (institutional) framework of the Hungarian immigration system has taken place without substantial debates about their policy foundations. Due to the country’s isolation and sealed borders before the collapse of the Communist regime neither the legal, nor the institutional background of any immigration system was needed to be in place. When in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s Hungary’s isolation ended, there was an abrupt change in this situation which had to be dealt with immediately as tens of thousands asylum seekers crossed over form the neighboring countries. As a heritage of the rather hectic early phase of legal and institutional development, the immigration system has remained largely reactive to the actual migration flows reaching the country as well as – later on – the development of the European immigration and asylum law and policy without articulating of discussing much about policy or strategic aspects of domestic migration management.

Attila Melegh: Floating Borders: Globalization and Migration in and around Hungary
The author proves through social and economic statistics how migratory movements towards Hungary can be inserted to the trends of globalization in contemporary world, too. Immigration has become much more of a trans-nation character and there are huge groups beside the undetected false tourists or illegal labour migrants who find an opportunity in Hungary to reside for a longer period. Globalization has become a major factor which process appears both in the relationship between regional patterns of foreign investment and certain migrant groups and in the social segmentation of migrants in terms of social position. The analysis releases the contradiction between the handling of migration in and around the European Union and the migratory processes until very recently. The idea of promoting the migration of highly skilled there is a huge group, which is not welcome but used rather extensively. Even we could see that till the early years of this decade there was a tendency toward the increase of this group.

Luca Váradi: Immigration Business in Hungary
The article means the first attempt to research on financial machinery of immigration process and authorization, looking for the answers how and why the legal surroundings and interactions among the players, stakeholders and potential migrant may influence on each other inside the Hungarian immigration law in practice. She gathered information through interviews, net-forums, homepages and personal observations al stages of the process in contemporary Hungary. Despite of non-representative survey and less confirmed data that could be available due to confidential, informal face-to-face methodology, the major dysfunctional components of immigration process can be released.

Emilia Palonen: Articulating the frontler in Hungarian politics: Demszky on 15 March
The article presents the political frontier-making in Hungary through an analysis of Budapest Mayor Gábor Demszky’s speeches. The liberal mayor is one of the few politicians, who have been active since late 1990s to the present: in fact. To gain a picture of the development in frontier-building in Hungary I focus Demszky’s yearly speeches on 15 March, the national day marking the 1848 revolution and the start of the War of Independence against the Habsburg Empire. They demonstrate the structure of Demszky’s discourse, and the creation and the negation of the frontier in Hungarian politics. The yearly speeches at the statue of Pefőfi, his political hero, are ‘statements’ which reveal Mayor’s description of the political situation and articulation of the frontier between ‘us’ and ‘them’. These refer both to the location of the Free Democrats (SZDSZ) vis á vis the other parties and the government or opposition, as well as Demszky’s position towards the party section in the parliament and his city administration.